Research and data are at the core of why we use tasks…without these two things, it may be impossible to justify the work. Thankfully, many people have spent time, energy and money to conduct and publish research. We may borrow some ideas, but we want you to be able to find all of that work here. Please help by suggesting citations to read or filling gaps that might have been missed.

  • Cohen, E. G., & Lotan, R. A. (2014). Designing Groupwork: Strategies for the Heterogeneous Classroom Third Edition. Teachers College Press.
  • Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All. (2014). Reston, VA: NCTM, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
  • Lotan, R. A. (2003). Group-worthy tasks. Educational Leadership60(6), 72-75.
  • Stein, M.K., Grover, B.W., & Henningsen, M. (1996). Building student capacity for mathematical thinking and reasoning: An analysis of mathematical tasks used in reform classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 33, 455-488.
  • Stein, Mary Kay, Barbara W. Grover, and Marjorie Henningsen. “Building Student Capacity for Mathematical Thinking and Reasoning: An Analysis of Mathematical Tasks Used in Reform Classrooms.” American Educational Research Journal 33, no. 2 (1996): 455–88
  • Stein M.K., Smith, M.S., Henninsen, M.A., & Silver, E.A. (2000). Implementing standards based mathematics instruction: A casebook for professional development, p. 4. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Stein, Mary Kay, and Margaret S. Smith. “Mathematical Tasks as a Framework for Re- flection: From Research to Practice.” Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School 3, no. 4 (1998): 268–75.
  • Stein, M. K., Engle, R. A., Smith, M. S., & Hughes, E. K. (2008). Orchestrating productive mathematical discussions: Five practices for helping teachers move beyond show and tell. Mathematical thinking and learning10(4), 313-340.